Genetic characterization of the mechanisms of resistance to amoxicillin/clavulanate and third-generation cephalosporins in Salmonella enterica from three Spanish hospitals


  • María de Toro
  • Yolanda Sáenz
  • Emilia Cercenado
  • Beatriz Rojo-Bezares
  • Marta García-Campello
  • Esther Undabeitia
  • Carmen Torres


The mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance were characterized in 90 Salmonella enterica isolates either resistant or with intermediate resistance to amoxicillin/clavulanate (AMCR/I) or resistant to third-generation cephalosporins (C3GR). These isolates were recovered in three Spanish hospitals during 2007-2009. The C3GR phenotype was expressed by three isolates that carried the following extended-spectrum β-lactamase genes: phage-associated blaCTX M-10 in S. Virchow, blaCTX-M-14a surrounded by ISEcp1 and IS903 in S. Enteritidis, and blaCTX-M-15 linked to ISEcp1 and orf477 in S. Gnesta (first description in this serotype). The AMCR/I phenotype was found in 87 isolates (79 S. Typhimurim, 7 S. Enteritidis, and one S. Thompson). The blaPSE-1 gene, followed by blaOXA-1 was mostly found among S. Typhimurim, and the blaTEM-1 gene among S. Enteritidis. Three different gene combinations [blaPSE-1+floR+aadA2+sul+tet(G); blaOXA-1+catA+aadA1/strA-strB+sul+tet(B) and blaTEM-1+cmlA1+aadA/strA-strB+sul+tet(A)/tet(B) genes] were associated with the ampicillin-chloramphenicol-streptomycin-sulfonamides-tetracycline phenotype in 68 AMCR/I S. enterica isolates. Class 1 integrons were observed in 79% of the isolates and in most of them (45 isolates) two integrons including the aadA2 and blaPSE-1 gene cassettes, respectively, were detected. The blaOXA-1+aadA1 arrangement was detected in 23 isolates, and the aac(6′)-Ib-cr+blaOXA-1+catB3+arr3 in another one. Non-classicclass 1 integrons were found in three isolates: dfrA12+orfF+aadA2+cmlA1+aadA1 (1 isolate), dfrA12+orfF+aadA2+cmlA1+aadA1+qacH+IS440+sul3 (1 isolate) and dfrA12+orfF+aadA2+cmlA1+aadA1+qacH+IS440+ sul3+orf1+mef(B)Δ-IS26 (1 isolate). Taken together, these results underline the need for clinical concern regarding β-lactam resistance in Salmonella and thus for vigilant monitoring.






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