Emergence, ecology and dispersal of the pandemic generating Vibrio cholerae lineage Authors Mohammad Tarequl Islam Munirul Alam Yan Boucher Keywords: Vibrio cholerae, cholera, pandemic, ecology, evolution Abstract Although cholera is an ancient disease that first arose at least half a millennium ago, it remains a major health threatglobally. Its pandemic form is caused by strains from a single lineage of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. The ancestor of this lineageharbored several distinctive characteristics, the most notable being the O1 antigen polysaccharide. This lineage generatedtwo biotypes, first Classical, responsible for six pandemics, and later El Tor, responsible for the seventh and ongoing pandemic.Just as El Tor replaced Classical as the main cause of outbreaks in the last fifty years, several variants of El Tor have evolved anddisplaced their predecessors worldwide. Understanding the ecology, evolution and dispersal of pandemic V. cholerae is centralto studying this complex disease with environmental reservoirs. Here, we present recent advancements of our knowledge on theemergence and spread of the pandemic generating lineage of V. cholerae in the light of established eco-evolutionary observations.Specific ecological interactions shape seasonal cholera, playing a role in the abundance and distribution of its causative agent.Both species-specific and lineage-specific genetic determinants play a role in the ability of V. cholerae strains to cause pandemicswith seasonal outbreaks, having evolved gradually over centuries. On the basis of the current understanding, we outline futurethreats and changes in biogeographical and genomic-based investigation strategies to combat this global problem. Author Biographies Mohammad Tarequl Islam Department of Biological Sciences, University of Albe.rta, Edmonton, Canada Munirul Alam International Centre for Diarrheal Disease Research (icddr,b), Bangladesh Yan Boucher Department of Biological Sciences, University of Albe.rta, Edmonton, Canada Downloads PDF Published 2018-02-27 Issue Vol. 20 No. 3 (2017) Section Research Reviews License Submission of a manuscript to International Microbiology implies: that the work described has not been published before, including publication in the World Wide Web (except in the form of an Abstract or as part of a published lecture, review, or thesis); that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere; that all the coauthors have agreed to its publication. The corresponding author signs for and accepts responsability for releasing this material and will act on behalf of any and all coauthors regarding the editorial review and publication process.If an article is accepted for publication in International Microbiology, the authors (or other copyright holder) must transfer to the journal the right–not exclusive–to reproduce and distribute the article including reprints, translations, photographic reproductions, microform, electronic form (offline, online) or any other reproductions of similar nature. Nevertheless, all article in International Microbiology will be available on the Internet to any reader at no cost. The journal allows users to freely download, copy, print, distribute, search, and link to the full text of any article, provided the authorship and source of the published article is cited. The copyright owner's consent does not include copying for new works, or resale. In these cases, the specific written permission of International Microbiology must first be obtained.Authors are requested to create a link to the published article on the journal's website. The link must be accompanied by the following text: "The original publication is available on LINK at <http://www.im.microbios.org>. Please use the appropiate URL for the article in LINK. Articles disseminated via LINK are indexed, abstracted, and referenced by many abstracting and information services, bibliographic networks, subscription agencies, library networks, and consortia.